In situ studies provide an opportunity to evaluate potential effects on biological receptors of concern under real-world conditions of interest. They also allow for deployment at fixed locations which makes it easier to interpret results in the context of specific source contaminants, and also apply rigorous statistical evaluation of the data. In addition, extended exposure durations can be used to assess cumulative impacts of multiple discharge events, as well as recovery of an impacted area following a spill. Biological receptors are typically chosen to replicate species and endpoints of interest in the receiving environment, with the additional consideration of having sufficient tissue available at the end of the exposure to measure uptake of contaminants of concern. In some cases, biochemical parameters (e.g., vitellogenin, cytochrome p450) can also be measured as indicators of exposure to potential endocrine disrupting compounds. Selected deployments are summarized below:
Related Selected Publications and Presentations
Marlatt V, Jinying S, Curran C, Bailey H, Kennedy C, Elphick J, Martyniuk C. 2014. Molecular responses to 17-β-estradiol in early life stage salmonids. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 203:203-214
Chalmers B, Elphick J, Gilron G, Bailey H. 2014. Evaluation of an in situ early life stage test with cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki, for environmental monitoring—a case study using mine effluent. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada. 49: 95-103.
Bailey H, Curran C, Marshall R. 2010. Application and evolution of the salmonid in situ early life stage test. SETAC North America 31st Annual Meeting, Portland, OR. November 7-11, 2010.