Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) apply physico-chemical manipulations in conjunction with analytical tools to identify causes of toxicity in water and sediment samples. Depending on the biological receptor of concern, such studies may be performed with fish, invertebrates, aquatic plants or algae. Data from these studies have direct relevance to risk assessments, source identification, and design of effective treatment and remediation strategies.
Nautilus is a leading practitioner in the field of TIEs; our staff have developed a number of innovative methods that simplify the traditional TIE approach and provide more direct, cost-effective pathways through the identification process. In addition, Nautilus is at the forefront of determining cause(s) of toxicity in sediment quality investigations, and maintains close connections with analytical laboratories that provide unique capabilities in terms of identifying unknown toxicants at low concentrations. Finally, multiple independent lines of evidence and statistical verification are used in the TIE process to ensure rigorous conclusions with respect to the cause of toxicity.
While most TIEs involve a single cause of toxicity, Nautilus has unique capabilities related to identification of toxicants in complex samples in which multiple contaminants may contribute to toxicity, or where water chemistry conditions may alter toxicity (i.e., matrix effects). Moreover, we have specific experience with a wide range of contaminants, including ammonia, nitrite, sulfide, metals, pesticides, disinfectants, industrial chemicals and polymers, surfactants, petroleum hydrocarbons, ions and ion imbalances, and emerging chemicals of concern. In addition to having detailed understanding of the chemical and toxicological properties of a wide range of potential toxicants, it is also important to have a working knowledge of different sample properties in order to properly implement a TIE and interpret the findings. In this regard, Nautilus has successfully performed TIEs on a wide variety of samples, including municipal and industrial wastewaters (e.g., sewage treatment plants, oil production and refining facilities, pulp and paper mills, sawmills, coal and metal mines), geothermal, agricultural and stormwater discharges, and contaminated sites (i.e., groundwater, and marine and freshwater sediments).
Related Selected Publications and Presentations
Bailey H, Curran C, Arth P, Lo B, Gossett R. 2016. Application of sediment toxicity identification evaluation techniques to a site with multiple contaminants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemisty. DOI: 10.1002/etc.3488
Stevenson R, Eickhoff C, de Bruyn A. 2012. What’s that Smell? A Sediment Porewater TIE Implicates Sulfide. 39th Aquatic Toxicity Workshop, September 30 - October 2, 2012, Sun Peaks, BC.
Laroulandie J, Keating J, Eickhoff C. 2012. Common Agents Identified in Toxicity Evaluations of Industrial Effluents. 39th Aquatic Toxicity Workshop, September 30 - October 2, 2012, Sun Peaks, BC.
Eickhoff C, Keating J, Stavroff L, Pickard J, Chan C, Johns R, Perello F, Kormendy R. 2009. Toxicity Identification and Reduction Evaluation of a Former Kraft Pulp Mill Landfill Leachate. SETAC North America 30th Annual Meeting, November 19-23, 2009, New Orleans, LA.
Eickhoff C, Pickard J, Kinnee K, Young L, Birkholz D, Kilback D. 2000. Identification of Sublethal Toxicants in a BC Coastal Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent. 27th Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop, October 1-3, 2000, St. John’s NF.
Bailey H, Elphick J, Krassoi R, Mulhall A, Lovell A, Slee D. 2005. Identification of chlorfenvinphos toxicity in a municipal effluent in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 24: 1773-1778.
Elphick J, Bailey H. 2002. Toxicity identification evaluation for stormwater runoff from an aluminum smelter. p. 22. In: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop: October 21-23, 2002, Whistler, BC.
Elphick J, Bailey H, Murphy F. 2002. Use of toxicity identification evaluation procedures as part of an environmental effects monitoring program for a mine. p. 21. In: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop: October 21-23, 2002, Whistler, BC.
Bailey H, Elphick J, Tang A, Lawrence G. 2002. Investigations into causes of sediment toxicity with bivalve larvae. In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Aquatic Toxicity Workshop: October 21-23, 2002. Whistler, BC. p. 72.
Bailey H, Elphick J, Krassoi R, Lowell A. 2001. Joint acute toxicity of diazinon and ammonia to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20:2877-2882
Elphick J,Bailey H, Murphy F. 2001. Toxicity Identification Evaluation of effluent from a mine. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium. Campbell River B.C., September 24-27, 2001. pp. 80-91.
Werner I, Deanovic L, Bailey H, Hinton D, Connor V, de Vlaming V. 2000. Insecticide-caused toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia (Cladocera) in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 19:215-227.
Bailey H, Krassoi R, Elphick J, Mulhall A, Hunt P, Tedmanson L, Lovell A. 2000. Whole effluent toxicity of sewage treatment plants in the Hawkesbury-Nepean watershed, New South Wales, Australia, to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Selenastrum capricornutum. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 19: 72-81
Bailey H, Elphick J, Potter A, Chao E, Konasewich D, Zak B. 1999. Causes of toxicity in stormwater runoff from sawmills. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 18: 1485-1491.
Bailey H, Elphick J, Potter A, Zak, B. 1999. Zinc toxicity in stormwater runoff from sawmills in British Columbia. Water Research 33: 2721-2725
Bailey H. 1997. Cost-effective TIEs through fingerprinting. Setac News. 17(1):19
Bailey H Miller J, Miller M, Wiborg L, Deanovic L, Shed T. 1997. Joint acute toxicity of diazinon and chlorpyrifos to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 16: 2304-2308.
Bailey H, DiGiorgio C, Kroll K, Miller J, Hinton D Starrett G. 1996. Development of procedures for identifying pesticide toxicity in ambient waters: carbofuran, diazinon and chlorpyrifos. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 15: 837-845.
Bailey H, Miller J, Miller M, Dhaliwal B. 1995. Application of toxicity identification procedures to the echinoderm fertilization assay to identify toxicity in a municipal effluent. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 14: 2181-2186.